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The rise of mini umbrella company fraud

  • 12th September 2022

The rise of mini umbrella company fraud continues to concern HRMC which has recently updated its guidance for businesses that either place or use temporary labour.

Mini umbrella companies can be used to abuse the VAT flat rate scheme and the national insurance contribution (NIC) employment allowance.

The VAT flat rate scheme can only be used if a business’s turnover is no more than £150,000, and the NIC employment allowance covers the first £5,000 of employer NIC liability each tax year.


Mini umbrella company fraud is where multiple limited companies are created, with only a small number of temporary workers employed by each one.

Businesses should be aware of the potential dangers in their labour supply chain – apart from the impact on reputation, the business’s workers may end up receiving less than they are entitled to.

Workers are often unaware of the arrangements, may not even know who their employer is, and might be regularly moved around between different mini umbrella companies. The use of the mini umbrella company model can mean the loss of some employment rights.

Warning signs

Mini umbrella companies will normally be low down in the supply chain, so it can be challenging to spot them. Warning signs include:

  • Unusual company names: The companies are often set up around the same time and given a similar or unusual name.
  • Unrelated business activity: The business activity listed at Companies House may not relate to the services provided by the worker.
  • Foreign national directors: Foreign nationals – who have no previous experience in the UK labour supply industry – are often listed as directors.
  • Movement of workers: Employees are moved frequently between different mini umbrella companies.
  • Short-lived businesses: Mini umbrella companies typically have a relatively short lifespan – often less than 18 months – before being dissolved by Companies House for not meeting filing obligations.

HMRC’s updated guidance on mini umbrella company fraud can be found here.

Any news or resources within this section should not be relied upon with regards to figures or data referred to as legislative and policy changes may have occurred.